Analytical Data

An analytical database represents data which are useful for the study of international trade but distinct from official data, usually through either statistical analysis and subsequent transformation and/or combination with other data. An example of the first would be data generated by regression-based methods, and an example of the second would be combinations of export and import data with input-output tables.

The Export of Value Added (EVA) Database provides information on the domestic value-added content of gross output and exports for 118 countries across 27 sectors of the economy, including 9 commercial services sectors, 3 primary sectors and 14 manufacturing sectors, spanning intermittent years between 1997 and 2011.

Trade data is usually measured at transaction values, which are gross values, or direct value added plus domestic and foreign intermediate inputs. The measure of gross exports may undervalue (or overvalue) the real contribution of a sector to trade if value added from this sector is embedded as inputs in other sectors’ exports (or overvalue if exports embed other sectors' value added inputs). Undervaluing is particularly true for services exports, and overvaluing for manufacturing exports. Measuring trade on a value-added basis, as achieved in the EVA Database, overcomes this shortcoming. Thus this alternative measure to trade makes explicit the direct value-added contribution of a sector to gross output or exports, as well as the linkages that the sector provides to all other sectors of the economy in terms of value added. This includes both forward linkages (the contribution of a particular sector as an input to others sectors’ exports) and backward linkages (the contribution of all other sectors to a particular sector’s exports).

Export of Value Added Database   By Country   By Indicator    Data Availability    Methodology

The Labor Content of Exports database was developed by Calì et al. (2016) on the basis of a panel of global input-output tables and exports from the Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP). The database measures the contribution of labor to a given country’s gross exports, measured as employees’ compensation / total wages (LACEX). It also uses gross output in place of exports to construct the labor value added content of domestic production. The measure of labor value added is further split between skilled and unskilled workers.

LACEX makes explicit the direct contribution of labor in a sector to gross output or exports, as well as the indirect contribution of labor through intermediate linkages. This includes both forward linkages (the contribution of labor in a particular sector to others sectors’ exports through intermediate inputs) and backward linkages (the contribution of labor in all other sectors to a particular sector’s exports). LACEX is available at the 24 sector level spanning intermittent years between 1995 and 2011 and covers a maximum of 120 countries. (LACEX is also available in bulk download at the 57 sector level.)

Labor Content of Export Database   By Country   By Indicator    Data Availability    Methodology

In order to promote e-commerce for development, policymakers and analysts increasingly want to know what the conditions are in their country to support online business activity, and how their country stacks up to other countries. To this end, the multi-stakeholder eTrade for All initiative has developed a new tool for assessing the e-trade environment at the country level. This tool, which was developed jointly by UNCTAD and the World Bank, utilizes data from the International Telecommunications Union (ITU), UNCTAD, the U.N. Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), Universal Postal Union (UPU), World Economic Forum, and the World Bank. The eTrade E-Commerce for All Indicators for Development contains over thirty indicators grouped in the following pillars of the e-commerce environment. These are:

  • ICT Infrastructure and Services: Do people have access to cell phones, broadband, and the Internet in general? How much does it cost?
  • Payment Solutions: Who has access to debit and credit cards? If these are scarce, will it be necessary to look at newer “mobile money” solutions? Does the country receive remittances?
  • Trade Logistics and Trade Facilitation: What are is the quality of logistics services for international delivery? Are customs procedures slow or burdensome? Do customers have access to postal services for last-mile delivery, and how reliable are they?
  • E-Commerce Skills Development: To what extent do firms in the country make use of the ICT and the Internet? How well do they absorb technology in general? What percent of firms have websites, and how many use e-mail to interact with clients and suppliers?
  • Legal and Regulatory Frameworks: Does the country have adequate legal frameworks for electronic transactions and signatures? What about privacy and data protection? Consumer protection for online purchases? Preventing cybercrime?
  • Access to Finance: Is access to finance a major constraint? Do most loans require collateral? Are banks willing to finance working capital?
  • E-Commerce Readiness Assessment and Strategy Formulation: How does the country look perform, on indexes already developed by UNCTAD (B2C e-commerce), the International Telecommunications Union (ICT development), and the World Economic Forum (networked readiness)?

E-Trade Indicators   Peer Countries   Download Raw Data